Dog Diseases – Distemper

Dog Diseases – Distemper

Canine distemper is a deadly and highly fatal disease, with nearly 50% of the dogs that contract the disease dying. It is ranked as second to rabies. It is a multi-systemic viral disease that is found worldwide. It is caused by a Morbillivirus which is closely related to the virus that causes measles in humans. The virus is prevalent in 3-6 month old puppies and un-vaccinated dogs. The virus can be transmitted through contact with respiratory secretions, fecal material and urine of infected dogs. For instance, a dog’s sneeze can transmit the virus to other dogs by lodging in the nasal passages of the new dog and eventually spread throughout the body affecting the eyes, lungs, intestinal tract and possibly the nervous system.

Signs of the infection become evident only after 3-6 days from the date of infection. Indications of the virus are anorexia, fever, discharge from the nose and eyes, pneumonia, vomiting and diarrhea. The paw pads will thicken and become hard and scaly. By the seventh day, the dog will experience a fever of about 39 Centigrade or higher. They will show signs of depression and a loss of appetite. Within 2-3 weeks, the virus affects the nervous system and causes damage to the brain and spinal cord. Seizures starting with tremors of the jaws or snapping may progress to convulsions of the whole body. Aside from seizures, the dog may experience tremors, imbalance and limb weakness. These are signs which mean the dog is nearing death or the dog may be strong enough to endure and overcome the virus. However, the effects of imbalance, tremors and the like may remain with the dog during its lifetime.

Although indications of distemper start appearing, it is still hard to confirm a distemper diagnosis. The veterinarian has to see the whole picture, observe the symptoms, study the history, and understand the possible causes and other aspects to establish the presence of distemper. There are tests that can be taken to confirm the infection but a negative result does not necessarily mean that there is no distemper. In that regard, the tests may be inconclusive since the veterinarian cannot discount the possibility of distemper despite the negative results. Some of these tests are: distemper Inclusion bodies, distemper antibody levels, PCR testing, and cerebrospinal fluid antibody levels.

There is no direct medication to cure distemper. Recovery is a case of immunity. The dog has to build up its own immune response to the virus. We can provide support to the ailments but not to directly eliminate the virus. For instance, if the dog has pneumonia, we provide antibiotics. If the dog gets dehydrated, we apply intravenous fluids. Airway dilators are used as needed to help the dog breathe. We can only hope that with our support, the dog can build up its immune system and overcome the virus. Recovery can happen at any stage.

All the problems can be prevented by having a distemper vaccination. The “distemper shot” provides the immunization for dogs and is normally given when a puppy is 6-8 weeks old. It is applied regularly every 2 to 4 weeks until they become 4 months old. Subsequent vaccinations are given every 1 to 3 years. Don’t scrimp on these vaccinations. A dog’s life is at stake.

Dog Crates: Indoor Dog Dens

Dog Crates: Indoor Dog Dens

Many dog owners wonder what dog supplies are important to have for their little friends. While they know they need to provide food, shelter, and toys, there are often questions regarding the use of dog crates. The questions are usually related to housetraining.

First we need to discuss how dog crates can compare to dog dens. In the wild dogs have dens as their homes. This could be a cave, an area under fallen a log, or even under an out building. These dens provide the dogs with a certain amount of shelter and protection. The dens make them feel safe.

Essentially, the dogs will use their dens as a place to sleep and relax. They strive to keep the area clean. In other words they do not urinate or defecate inside the den.

Dogs living in the home also look for a place to serve as a den. They may choose to use a spot behind or under a piece of furniture. But if a dog crate is provided they are very likely to accept that as the den – that is, if the dog crate is used correctly.

Dog crates should never be used as a place of punishment. Instead they should be the dog’s safe place – the place they go for comfort. Be sure that the crate is large enough to be comfortable for your pet. You can help create that feeling of reassurance by adding a soft blanket or other bedding material for your furry little friend. It’s also a good idea to keep a favorite toy in the crate.

The idea is to make the time in the crate enjoyable. This even includes when you are using a crate as a housebreaking aid. The reason crates are helpful in this training task is that you can keep your puppy (or dog) confined for a period of time without making a mess of the crate. 강남휴게텔 Remember, the dog will accept the crate as his den and he wants to keep his den clean.

Keep in mind that puppies need to relieve themselves very often. You can expect the need immediately after waking up, after eating or drinking, after playing or other exercise, and sometimes in between. Of course you should not keep your puppy in the crate all the time. The crate should be used when you are not available to watch over your puppy.

However, it is best to allow the puppy to be in a confined area with you whenever possible. If you must be gone for long periods of time you may want to invest in a dog play pen. These pens offer a larger area but still provide a safe and confined place for the puppy to stay while you are gone.

Dental Care For Your Dog

Dental Care For Your Dog

Our furry little friends are likely to develop dental disease if their dental needs are ignored. Periodontal disease is not uncommon among dogs, particularly small dog breeds. And just like with humans, these problems can result in bad breath, yellowed teeth, and in the worst of cases, even progress to loss of teeth.

The development of such problems usually begins with such signs as swollen, red, and painful gums. Your pet may have less of an appetite as well. These signs indicate a need for immediate professional care.

Tooth decay and/or the loss of teeth usually indicate the presence of bacteria in the mouth. If left untreated the damage can progress from only involving the mouth to further damage that can include serious complications related to the kidneys, lungs, and heart, all of which can lead to a shortened lifespan. Periodontal problems usually start with the formation of plague.

Plaque builds on the teeth and in thirty-six hours or less, plaque can harden and tartar can form. This problem usually develops first and the worst in the upper back teeth. Unfortunately, once tartar has formed, it cannot be brushed away.

The good news is that these problems can be avoided. Although healthy routines can be started with any dog at any age, it is always best to start healthy routines with a young puppy. If the dog is older you should insure that he has a professional dental cleaning and then begin the healthy dental routine at home.

If you have a regular routine of brushing your dog’s teeth on a daily basis you can avoid most of these problems. The routine should be established while the dog is young if at all possible. He will then accept the brushing as part of his regular care.

At first the dog will wonder what you are doing so it is best to allow him to taste the doggie toothpaste. These special pastes are formulated to be appealing to dogs. You can use your finger or a special dog toothbrush. Don’t forget to clean both the teeth and the gums. Begin in the back and work in small circular motions. The entire brushing process will take less than a minute.

Providing such things as chew treats, hard dog biscuits and bones, and even soft toys for your pet can help to prevent dental problems. Besides keeping the teeth strong and healthy many of the items are specially formulated to freshen the breath. Feeding crunchy food items on a regular basis is another way to keep your pet’s teeth healthier. Another tip is that while warming your dog’s food will often make it more appealing it is important to insure that the food is only slightly warm and never hot. On the flip side, dogs should not be served cold food.

Choosing The Right Dog Leash

Choosing The Right Dog Leash

Every dog owner finds that there are times that a leash or dog lead is a useful and important part of his dog supplies. After all, we love having our best friends with us as often as possible and many places now have leash laws. That means besides our own yard, there are few places that we can let our pets run free.

While dog leads are a simple concept, a strap or chain intended to restrain the animal, there is much more to choosing the one that is right for you and your dog than you may think. This becomes obvious as you begin shopping for a dog leash. Even the smallest pet shop will carry a variety of leads, in varying lengths and made of anything from plastic to metal.

To determine which one is right for you and your pet you should begin with determining your specific needs. If you plan to use your lead for walking your dog as you stroll through the neighborhood for example, a nylon leash (4 – 6 feet long) is ideal. These leads have a clip for attaching to a harness or collar at one end and a loop handle at the other.

The proper length needed is determined by the height of the dog and by how much freedom you want to allow him. As you can imagine, the shorter the leash, the less freedom the dog will have to stray. Short leads are used during dog shows because they can provide greater control of the animal during competitions.

Most dog trainers agree that a 4 ft. lead made of soft braided leather works best for dog training. These leads also have a clip at one end and a loop handle at the other. The trainer can have a tight grip on the leash, which is often needed during training, and at the same time, the lead can easily be folded into a shorter length if the need arises.

If you are fortunate enough to live in an area where you can safely allow your dog a little more freedom during walks, you will probably want to use a retractable lead. These leads are 15 – 25 feet long. They have a plastic handle and a thin rope (sometimes made of wire) that retracts automatically. This allows your pet freedom while keeping you in control.

There are also extended length dog leads made of nylon rope. These can range in length from 12 to 30 feet and they can be ideal for training a puppy to fetch or for tracking sessions.

Some dogs are used for special purposes, such as Guide Dogs (Seeing Eye Dogs) and other special assistance needs. Many of these dogs use leads that are specifically designed for that unique purpose.

Leads range in price from about $5 up to about $50. Knowing what you will be using the leash for will make your shopping much easier. Once in the store you should look for a leash that is made of quality material and that has secured stitches. Whether the lead is made of leather or nylon, it’s a good idea to look for one that feels soft. You and your pet will appreciate the flexibility. And finally, the clip should be sturdy. Check it out and consider the fact that it will be used repeatedly. Therefore, the clip should be made of a durable metal that will hold up to many uses.

Basic Supplies And Needs Of Your Dog

Basic Supplies And Needs Of Your Dog

When you have a dog it doesn’t take long to find out that you need certain supplies and equipment to keep him happy, healthy, and safe. Of course you have to feed him a sound diet but your dog needs a lot more than just food.

One of the most important things for a dog is companionship. Dogs are naturally pack animals and as such they enjoy being with others. If you cannot spend quality time with your pet on a regular basis then perhaps you could consider adopting another dog. They could then provide company for each other.

Many others find that having two dogs is easier than having one in many ways. Why? Dogs with ‘friends’ are less dependent on their owners for companionship. Because they have each other to play with they are less likely to get into mischief while you are away.

We have already mentioned food but we didn’t say anything about a food bowl. The importance of the right food bowls is often underestimated. A dog bowl should ‘fit’ the dog. Larger dogs eat more and their bowls should hold more. Smaller dogs need smaller bowls. But some dogs have short faces while others have longer ones. A dog with a short face would find it difficult to eat from a bowl with taller sides. Other bowl considerations include the fact that puppies like to chew on things so thought 강남휴게텔 should be given to that when choosing their bowls.

Identification of your pet is essential in the case that he should somehow get lost. It is wise to keep the tags on your pet at all times and to always have a current photo available. Insure that your fence and gate are in good repair and if your dog is a digger be sure to make an occasional inspection for signs of digging under the fence.

Dogs need toys. This helps them learn and get exercise. Experiment with different types of toys until you find what your dog likes.

Dogs are naturally territorial and need a space of their own. We can accommodate that by furnishing a crate or a kennel to be used as his home within your home. This should not be used as a place for punishment. Instead, make it as comfortable for him as possible. Add a soft place for him to sleep, a toy, and even a treat or two.

You will probably find it helpful to have at least one or two dog beds available for your pet. This can help to prevent the issue of him using your furniture as his lounging area.

There will be times that you will need to confine your dog to a particular room or area of your home. Consider using baby gates and doggie play pens for this. Insure that the area is completely safe for your pet before leaving him there alone.

Besides food and basic care the most important thing for your dog is your love. Dogs are loyal companions that want nothing more than to please us. Whether you can purchase all the extras or not, by providing proper food, medical care, and love, your dog will thrive.

Basic Considerations When Choosing A New Puppy

Basic Considerations When Choosing A New Puppy

Before actually adding a new puppy to your home you should consider what your expectations of dog ownership are. All dogs require love, food and shelter, but puppies need more commitment from their owners than adult dogs do. Puppies are more time demanding because they are essentially babies. They have to be taught how to behave appropriately and they go through various stages as they grow. Most puppies go through a chewing phase and at some points in growing up they are very energetic.

If there are children in the home even extra supervision will be required. This is to protect both the child and the puppy. Puppies love to play and their little teeth are very sharp. They can also easily scratch little ones with their claws during play.

Similarly, children are drawn to small animals. They are very likely to hold them and carry them around. Many puppies have been squeezed, dropped or stepped on and injured inadvertently by well intentioned children. Obviously you will have to be diligent in watching over the two when they’re together. Most breeders of small or toy breeds do not sale their puppies to homes with young children because of these risks. If you do have a child in your home insure that the puppy you add is one with a gentle disposition and loving personality.

Many people want a dog as a means of security or protection. They are looking for a sort of living alarm system, a dog that will bark when someone approaches the yard or the door. The good news is that almost any dog can fill this need. The fact is that even the bark of a toy poodle is usually effective in turning away an intruder.

Of course some people want to go a step farther with that concept and have a dog that presents the physical appearance of a watch dog. In this case people often choose larger breeds such as Doberman Pinchers or even Boxers. Most dogs are protective of their owners and their territory without having any specialized training. The sheer size and appearance of larger dogs is a deterrent to most would be intruders.

Dogs are naturally pack animals which makes them a social animal. They love their human family and want to be a part of it. Dogs make excellent companions. Dogs should be included as a part of the family whenever possible. They truly need the interaction and love of their family.

Dogs should not spend their time all alone, living in the back yard. This is especially true of puppies. The younger the pup the more supervision and regular training he needs. Socialization is important for all dogs. In fact, it is the secret to a well behaved dog.

Before you add a new puppy to your home it is important to take the time to consider what type of dog will best suit your lifestyle. If you are the type of person that enjoys sports and the outdoors then an energetic dog may be perfect for you. If you spend a lot of time at the computer you may prefer a small lap dog. And if you live in the city you may want to consider a small dog that does not require a deal of space.

All About Anal GlandsBasic Considerations When Choosing A New Puppy

All About Anal Glands

If you own a dog you may have heard the term ‘anal glands’ and wondered what it is, and if it is a normal part of all dogs. The answer is yes; all dogs have anal glands. In most cases there are no problems associated with these structures, unless they become filled, and in which case, they become uncomfortable. In fact, infections and other problems can result from this situation.

Anal glands are small sac like structures that are located near the anus. There is one gland on each side of the anal region. The glands have openings that are located just inside the anus. Anal glands hold a liquid substance until the animal defecates, and at that time the liquid is normally secreted, or expressed from the glands, along with the feces.

Fear, nervousness, or even excitement can also result in the expression of this foul smelling, dark colored liquid. As a result it may be seen under the animal’s tail, or near the rectum, or even on the floor near the pet.

Over-filling and/or inadequate emptying of the anal glands is not uncommon in dogs. When the glands are full the pet will begin to feel a discomfort in the anal region and strive to relieve that distress. Dogs are sometimes seen scooting their behinds across the floor in an effort to relieve the symptoms. Other times they will bite or lick at the area surrounding the anus and under the tail. Additionally, some dogs will keep their tail tucked down and under, or between their legs when they feel discomfort related to their anal glands.

Fortunately, the liquid can be manually expressed from the anal glands. One method is external manual expression. This involves squeezing the area on either side of the anus to ‘milk’ or force the fluid out of the anal glands. The other method is internal manual expression which involves inserting a finger inside the rectum of the dog and using another finger on the outside, with the anal glands between the fingers. Execution of either method should result in visible excretion of the fluid exiting the anal glands openings. Groomers and veterinarians are experienced in this procedure.

Allowing the fluid to continue to build without emptying the sacs can eventually result in the fluid changing consistency, from a fluid liquid to a much thicker substance that is even more difficult to express. At this point it is best to seek professional assistance from a veterinarian. If left unattended the anal glands can become infected and other problems can develop.

Depending on the severity of the resulting problems the dog may need to have flushing treatments of the anal glands and treatments with antibiotics, which may involve sedation, as well as pain medication. If the anal glands become repeatedly filled and problems continue it is possible that surgical removal will be suggested. The removal can sometimes result in (temporary or permanent) fecal incontinence.

Adorable Puppies That Bite Ankles

Adorable Puppies That Bite Ankles

We all know that puppies go through a phase of chewing on things. They will chew on practically anything in sight; this includes dangerous items like electrical cords and poisonous plants. That is 강남휴게텔 why we have to puppy-proof our homes before we bring home our little baby. But unfortunately, puppies also seem to love nipping at our ankles.

Whether it is our ankles or the ankles of other pets in the home, the new puppy is likely to ‘attack’ each time we walk across the floor. Although this activity is cute and even adorable at first, it can become quite annoying in a short period of time. Not only is it irritating but it can also become a costly and hurtful experience.

Sometimes those sharp little teeth and claws land just right, grabbing and tearing through not only our pants, socks, and/or hose, but also our skin. Ouch! This is obviously a problem that new puppy owners frequently complain of.

The good news is that there are some simple solutions to the problem. You clearly want your puppy to understand that you are the one in charge in your home. But you don’t want your puppy to be frightened of you and you understand that he is only playing. The perfect way out is to provide a distraction for your little dog.

Each time that he does his ‘attack’ thing you should be prepared with a distraction of some sort. Many people use noise makers for this. The ‘noise maker’ should be something that is unusual for your home. It could be a clapping of your hands, snapping of your fingers, shaking of a jar of pennies, etc. The point is that the noise needs to get the pup’s attention.

The noise has to be out of the ordinary to do that. But some puppies do not respond to strange noises. They continue with the attack as if nothing else is going on. In that case you could try offering a favorite toy. You will need to place the toy near the puppy and make a real effort to get his attention.

Depending on how much your puppy likes playing toys, this tactic may be effective. The last option is really not a favorite because it can send the wrong message to your puppy. If all else fails you can use a treat to distract your puppy. The bad thing is your pup could learn to associate this misbehavior with a positive reward.

On the up side of things, puppies do grow out of this stage. As with everything else, time will take care of the problem, if your patience last that long!

American Cocker spaniel

Of all the dog breeds out there, a few are clearly ahead of the pack when it comes to their natural ability with kids. The best breeds for children are gentle, easy-going, and physically sturdy enough to take a few over-exuberant squeezes and occasional clumsy handling. If you’re looking for a great dog for your kids, here are of few breeds to consider.

American Cocker spaniel

This variety of Spaniel is cheerful, even-tempered, and enjoys being around children of all ages. As a plus, their small size (less than 30 pounds) makes them unlikely to frighten younger children. Their long coat, however, means that they need regular grooming which can be inconvenient for a time challenged mom.

Golden Retriever

Nearly always listed among the best breeds for children, Golden Retrievers have an exceptional love for kids and like to spend time playing with them. They’re intelligent, eager to please, and often exuberant, so obedience training is usually easy. There are a few genetic diseases present in the breed, so choose your pup carefully to avoid heartache at a later date.

Labrador Retriever

The Lab is laid back, sociable with humans, and happiest when it can tag along with family members throughout the day. Its friendly look makes the dog’s size a little less intimidating, too. Although this breed is excellent with children, it’s often boisterous and high-spirited, and needs obedience training to allow it to live harmoniously with young children.

When it comes to child-friendly dog breeds, small dogs do offer a lot of advantages. Children can walk and play with little dogs without fear of being knocked over and their size won’t intimidate shyer children. Small dogs are also easy for an older child to wash and groom. Here are a few dog breeds small enough to play gently with children, but not too small to stand up to a little rough-housing.


Sturdy and spunky, the pug dog is a lot like most kids. Pugs love people and will most likely follow your children around whenever possible. Playful by nature, they seem to enjoy entertaining their owners with silly antics. They’re also sensitive and intelligent enough to take to training without much trouble. The only drawbacks are that they’re prone to certain health problems and their wrinkles require special care.

Miniature Schnauzer

With its compact size, solid build, and friendly demeanor, the Schnauzer makes a great companion for small children. Although they’re as rambunctious as terriers, they’re less aggressive, which makes them a better choice around kids. Schnauzers aren’t yappy, but they are natural guard dogs and will sound the alarm when any stranger approaches the house. They too need regular grooming to maintain those charming Schnauzer eyebrows!

Don’t forget shelter dogs. Sure, the mutts at your local shelter may not hold prestigious pedigrees, but many have already been socialized with babies and children. Because they’re almost always adults, you won’t have to guess at their personality like you would with a puppy. Remember, a lot of people give up their dogs because of a move or financial problems, not because there’s something wrong with the dog. Also, most shelter dogs will have been neutered and temperament tested before adoption.

While the best breeds for children are naturally even tempered, affectionate and patient with little kids, temperament’s not everything. You’ll also want to consider the breed’s exercise needs, grooming and clean-up requirements, and potential health problems. Take your time to read up on the breeds that interest you, speak to reputable breeders, and you’re sure to find a dog that’s perfect for your family.

Animal diseases that can affect humans are called zoonoses

Animal diseases that can affect humans are called zoonoses. There are several dog diseases that may cause disease in your child; here we will look at three “worms” that can spread from dog to human.

Intestinal Worms are a very common parasite of dogs, and can make your dog unwell. Treating your dog regularly with an appropriate worming medication will prevent them from becoming a problem in your dog.

It’s a much bigger problem if dog worms have infected your child. Every year thousands of blood tests are performed to check if a person is infected with worms from their dog.

The culprits that may affect your child are hookworms  and roundworms.

There are four ways dogs can become infected with hookworms. They may inadvertently eat hookworm larvae, or the larvae penetrate the skin and enter the body that way.  Puppies can be infected in the uterus, or by drinking mother’s milk containing larvae.

The adult worms attach to the lining of the small intestine and drink blood. An affected dog will have pale gums, black sticky diarrhea and will be quite lethargic because of blood loss.

Adult hookworms don’t infect humans, but larvae in the ground may burrow through the skin. They then migrate under the skin, causing red itchy rashes  which may  become infected. Rarely, it can cause gastrointestinal illness in people.

Canine roundworms are much more dangerous in humans.

This worm again lives in a dog’s small intestine, and causes diarrhea, a pot belly and, if there are enough of them, they can block the intestine.

Humans are infected when they inadvertently eat roundworm eggs in the environment. Because young children are usually attracted to dogs, and often put their fingers in their mouths, they are at most risk of getting roundworms.

In most cases, the worms cause no problem to people. However, there is the possibility that roundworm larvae will migrate through the body, particularly through the eye and the brain. The damage they cause is often permanent.

There are three main ways of preventing your children becoming infected with dog worms.Firstly, treat your dog regularly with an effective worming medication to prevent your yard becoming infected with eggs or larvae. Secondly, teach your child proper hygiene around dogs – wash their hands after patting the family pet, and encourage them to keep their hands out of their mouths. Lastly, clean up feces around the yard, as they’ll be a source of infection.

Ringworm isn’t in fact a worm at all, it is a fungal infection. It gets it’s name because it often causes a hairless round patch on the skin of both dogs and people, which can be red and itchy. The infected patch heals from the middle outwards, so it looks like a red ring on the skin.

In some cases, dogs can have ringworm without showing any skin changes. Also, the fungal spores live a long time in the environment. Spread is through contacting the spores, either through patting an infected dog, or handling bedding or grooming tools such as brushes.

Depending on the severity, you and your dog will be treated with an ointment, or with tablets. Because an infected dog is constantly shedding spores, you have to be persistent to completely eliminate the infection. Fortunately, ringworm is usually not a severe condition, and is easily treated.

Teaching your child good hygiene will help prevent infection with these worms, and keep your child healthy.